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CLEAN-AIR(Africa) Focus Countries


Kenya is currently implementing policies to scale adoption of LPG as a clean household energy to address the negative impacts on health, the environment, deforestation and energy security of domestic reliance on solid fuels for cooking and heating.

In Kenya, 76% of the population (35m) relies on solid fuels and kerosene for cooking and heating. Associated household air pollution (HAP) accounted for 1,027,116 (5.8% total) DALYs and 22,109 premature deaths (7.5% of all deaths) in 2019. LPG expansion is a priority in the country with a stated goal to double national LPG consumption by 2030. In 2017, the government had established a program (the “Mwananchi Gas project”) to supply over 4 million subsidized 6kg cylinders with on top burners to poor households over 4 years. The ultimate goal was to reach 70% LPG penetration rates. However, the Mwananchi Gas project has been paused but other important legal and regulatory reforms are taking place to boost the uptake of LPG and reduce illegal LPG refilling activities.

 CLEAN-Air(Africa) will work closely with the Ministry of Petroleum & Mining and other local stakeholders to provide an evidence base for sustained use of LPG by communities. The Group will also evaluate innovative consumer financing initiatives (e.g. pay-as-you-go use of LPG with smart meter technology and microfinance).


In Cameroon, where approximately 70% of the population use solid fuel for cooking (more than 90% in rural communities) (DHS, 2011), the government has a target to increase LPG adoption from approximately 20% of the population to 58% (18 million people) by 2030. To this end, with support from the Global LPG Partnership (GLPGP), they have developed an LPG for Clean Cooking Masterplan to inform strategies to scale adoption through improved market regulation, infrastructure, supply and access, announced in 2016. One important aspect of facilitating the widespread transition from solid fuel to LPG for cooking is to understand how best to encourage and support households to both adopt LPG and use it exclusively in a sustained way.

The LPG Adoption in Cameroon Evaluation (LACE) studies were launched by UoL in 2016 to (i) identify potential enablers and barriers to adoption and sustained use of LPG at household level and (ii) test interventions to support communities to make the transition to cleaner fuel. The independent studies were conducted after publication of the LPG Masterplan to provide evidence to support scaled transition from solid fuel to LPG from a community perspective. The methods adopted and interventions assessed for the LACE studies formed the basis for the present extended program of research to further inform policies to scale up LPG transition as a clean household energy in Cameroon and beyond for CLEAN-Air (Africa).


In Ghana, approximately 70% of households rely on solid fuels and biomass for cooking. Household air pollution (HAP) arising from their use is responsible for 11,065 premature deaths and the loss of 451,726 disability adjusted life-years annually. These fuels also contribute substantially to ambient air pollution in the country. Thus, there is a need to promote low emission ‘clean’ fuels such as Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG).

Ghana became the first country to promulgate a Sustainable Energy for All Action Plan, as called for by the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) program In June 2012. The plan emphasized the importance of promoting LPG as clean energy for cooking, amongst other strategies and set up an initial goal to expand LPG access to 50% of Ghana’s population by 2020 (now moved to 2030). To effectively scale safe adoption of LPG as a clean household energy, the Ghana SEforALL plan also called for a national change in LPG infrastructure to the LPG cylinder recirculation model (CRM), whereby LPG marketers are responsible for ownership and safety of LPG cylinders, (as opposed to the current end user ownership), as a model for LPG distribution in the country (Energy-Commission, 2012). The National Petroleum Authority has been mandated in 2017 by the President of Ghana to implement transition to the CRM and piloting of the new distribution model is expected to start in the first quarter of 2019.